Defining the New Class

  • The Bohemians – Adolphe d’Ennery and Grangé (1843)
  • The Bourgeoisie – Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels (1848)
  • The General Intellect – Karl Marx (1857)
  • The Self-Made Man – Samuel Smiles (1859)
  • The Labour Movement – Karl Marx (1867)
  • The Educated Working Man – Thomas Wright (1868)
  • The Superman – Friedrich Nietzsche (1883)
  • The Aristocracy of the Working Class – Friedrich Engels (1885)
  • The New Middle Class – William Morris (1885)
  • The Intellectual Proletariat – William Morris (1888)
  • The Vanguard Party – V.I. Lenin (1902)
  • The Samurai – H.G. Wells (1905)
  • The Bureaucrats – Max Weber (1910)
  • The Scientific Managers – Frederick Winslow Taylor (1911)
  • The Labour Aristocracy – V.I. Lenin (1916) 
  • The Labour Bureaucracy – Gregory Zinoviev (1916)
  • The Blackshirts – Mario Piazzesi (1921)
  • The Engineers – Thorstein Veblen (1921)
  • The Fordist Worker – Henry Ford (1922)
  • The Open Conspiracy – H.G. Wells (1928) 
  • The Intellectuals – Antonio Gramsci (1934)
  • The Managerial Class – James Burnham (1941)
  • The Entrepreneurs – Joseph Schumpeter (1942)
  • The Inner Party – George Orwell (1948)
  • The New Middle Class – C. Wright Mills (1951)
  • The Power Elite – C. Wright Mills (1956)
  • The Organisation Man – William Whyte (1956) 
  • The New Class – Milovan Djilas (1957) 
  • The Specialists – Ralf Dahrendorf (1957) 
  • The New Class – J.K. Galbraith (1958)
  • The Industrial Managers – Clark Kerr (1960) 
  • The Order-Givers – Cornelius Castoriadis (1961)
  • The New Working Class – Serge Mallet (1963)
  • The Knowledge Workers – Peter Drucker (1966) 
  • The Educational and Scientific Estate – J.K. Galbraith (1967)
  • The Technocrats – Alain Touraine (1969)
  • The Hippies – Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin (1969)
  • The Produsumers – Décio Piganatari (1969)
  • The Scientific Intellectual Labourers – Ernest Mandel (1972)
  • The Knowledge Class – Daniel Bell (1973)
  • The Intermediate Layers – Harry Braverman (1974)
  • The New Petty-Bourgeoisie – Nicos Poulantzas (1974)
  • The Professional-Managerial Class – Barbara & John Ehrenreich (1975)
  • The Proletarianised Professionals – Stanley Aronowitz (1975)
  • The Post-Modernists – Jean-François Lyotard (1979)
  • The Socialised Workers – Antonio Negri (1980)
  • The White-Collar Proletarians – Michael Kelly (1980)
  • The Nomads – Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari (1980)
  • The Prosumers – Alvin & Heidi Toffler (1980)
  • The Post-Industrial Proletarians – André Gorz (1980)
  • The Entrepreneurs – George Gilder (1981) 
  • The Venture Capitalists – John Naisbitt (1982)
  • The Hackers – Steven Levy (1984) 
  • The Cyborgs – Donna Haraway (1985)
  • The Symbolic Analysts – Robert Reich (1991)
  • The Virtual Class – Arthur Kroker and Michael Weinstein (1994)
  • The Netizens – Michael & Ronda Hauben (1995)
  • The Digerati – John Brockman (1996)
  • The Multipreneurs – Tom Gorman (1996)
  • The Immaterial Labourers – Maurizio Lazzarato (1996)
  • The Digital Artisans – Richard Barbrook and Pit Schultz (1997)
  • The Digital Citizen – Jon Katz (1997)
  • The Swarm Capitalists – Kevin Kelly (1998)
  • The New Independents – Charlie Leadbeater and Kate Oakley (1999)
  • The Elancers – Helen Wilkinson (1999)
  • The Multitude – Antonio Negri and Michael Hardt (2000)
  • The New Barbarians – Ian Angell (2000)
  • The Bobos (Bourgeois Bohemians) – David Brooks (2000)
  • The Cognitariat – Franco Bifo Berardi (2001)
  • The Free Agents – Daniel Pink (2001)
  • The Cybertariat – Ursula Huws (2001)
  • The Netocracy – Alexander Bard and Jan Söderqvist (2002)
  • The Precariat – Frassanito Network (2002) 
  • The Creative Class – Richard Florida (2002)
  • The Pro-Ams – Charlie Leadbeater and Paul Miller (2004)